Anyone who has minimally studied Buddhism Memory Hack will recognize that "right mindfulness" is number seven of the Buddha's Noble Eightfold Path. In fact, it is one of the three mental development components of the path - the other two being "right effort" and "right concentration." The Buddha's first post-Enlightenment sermon included the Four Noble Truths with the last one being the path to Enlightenment of which mindfulness belongs. As Buddhist practitioners view this Path as an answer to mental wholeness, it is actually very easy to secularize it as a psychotherapeutic intervention.
Most of the studies that have been published over the past few years talk of the remarkable results achieved when getting a subject to develop more focus on the present time and place, which is pretty much the best definition I can find for mindfulness. Yet, somehow I don't believe that the current enthusiasm regarding this topic fully appreciates its true meaning and implication. Indeed, the ability to focus the mind has more profound ramifications.
To understand this one must get past the quasi-religious implications and look into the hard science that can be found by examining its neurological basis. In a few of my courses I point out that the thickness of the neural networks in various brain structures are directly correlated to increased functional capacity. You can translate this to mean that the functions provided by that area are enhanced. For instance, if the area with thickened neural networks is related to spelling, mathematics, memory, etc, you can accomplish these tasks at a higher level. It was discovered post mortem that Time Magazine's Man of the Century, Albert Einstein, had thicker than normal parietal lobes.